FUELS & LUBRICATION

Fuels & lubrication

Section 8

​​​8​FUELS & LUBRICATION

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Laat dit glad loop.

By TOTAL stap ons die pad al lank saam met ons land se boeregemeenskap. En as vennoot op die pad, weet ons dat opdraende uitklim, klippe kou en selfs berge verskuif deel van jou daaglikse lewe is. Daarom bied TOTAL Agri die boer ‘n reeks van dienste en produkte, so wyd soos die vlaktes, en […]

Introduction to fuels

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​TOTAL House3 Biermann AvenueRosebank, 2196JohannesburgNational Customer Contact Centre: 0860 111 111Website: www.total.co.za ​INTRODUCTION TO FUELS​1. REFINERY SOURCE MATERIAL : CRUDE OIL​Other than relatively minor quantities produced by synthetic or chemical processes, the petroleum products marketed throughout the world are obtained from crude oils and natural gas created over millions of years from buried organic deposits. […]

Introduction to fuels

p.144

​TOTAL House3 Biermann AvenueRosebank, 2196JohannesburgNational Customer Contact Centre: 0860 111 111Website: www.total.co.za ​2. ​THE REFINING PROCESSCrude oils are a complex mixture of hydrocarbons and impurities which require processing to separate, convert and purify fractions to produce useful products. There are 3 basic refining step in most refining operations as shown in Figure 2:​Distillation (physical separation)Chemical […]

Introduction to fuels

p.145

​TOTAL House3 Biermann AvenueRosebank, 2196JohannesburgNational Customer Contact Centre: 0860 111 111Website: www.total.co.za ​Finishing​The main processes at this stage are hydrodesulphurization, which reduces the sulphur content of the fractions, sweetening, which neutralizes certain corrosive sulphur compounds, and other processes specially designed for LPG and gasoline/petrol. The engine fuel bases obtained via these processes are mixed together […]

Introduction to fuels

p.146

​TOTAL House3 Biermann AvenueRosebank, 2196JohannesburgNational Customer Contact Centre: 0860 111 111Website: www.total.co.za ​normal in a sample. It also provides a guide to energy contents. Generally, the higher the density, the larger the calorific value.​» Flash point – The lowest temperature to which a product must be heated under standardized conditions for the vapours emitted to […]

Making the regulation

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​TOTAL House3 Biermann AvenueRosebank, 2196JohannesburgNational Customer Contact Centre: 0860 111 111Website: www.total.co.za ​MAKING THE REGULATION​Following on from the individual specifications for petrol and diesel, this section examines the continuing requirement for the Regulations in general terms, using international data.​1. Why do we need the Regulations? ​The Reference Guide has drawn the readers’ attention to the […]

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There's a reasoneevery engine has more than 1000 safety checks

​THERE’S A REASON EVERY ENGINE HAS MORE THAN 1000 SAFETY CHECKS.​Every little part is as important as the next when it comes to flight safety, which is why TOTAL Aviation ensures that every drop of our JET A-1 kerosene lives up to our highest standards. Suitable for most jet engines, with a flash point greater […]

Properties of biofuels

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​TOTAL House3 Biermann AvenueRosebank, 2196JohannesburgNational Customer Contact Centre: 0860 111 111Website: www.total.co.za ​PROPERTIES OF BIOFUELS​The 1998 South African Energy White Paper set the pace for the introduction and promotion of renewable energy sources in South Africa. Globally, the interest in renewable energy sources has been driven mainly by high and escalating oil prices; environmental concerns […]

Properties of biofuels

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​TOTAL House3 Biermann AvenueRosebank, 2196JohannesburgNational Customer Contact Centre: 0860 111 111Website: www.total.co.za ​The cost of biodiesel analysis is very high and technically complex.  Analytical facilities in South Africa are limited. It is not feasible for small-scale producers to carry out the analysis due to the high costs involved and a means of overcoming this needs […]

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